, During the mid-1990s, the percentages of male and female defectors were relatively balanced. Psychological factors on PAI of the masculine North Korean refugee. (2009). Why a Senior Defector Believes North Korea's Days Are Numbered.  In the first half of 2018, women made up 88% of defectors to the South. We have known for ages that the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is neither a democracy nor a republic. A former South Korean MP estimated that in 2012 about 100 defectors returned to North Korea via China.  In 2014, the Unification Ministry of South Korea said it only had records of 13 double defections, three of whom defected to South Korea again. Citing UNHRC statistics, the report identified North Korean communities in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Intergovernmental organizations such as the United Nations have repeatedly urged recipient nations of North Korean defectors to increase the efforts in identifying defectors who are at high risk for poor mental health and provide appropriate medical services and social support.  PTSD-related symptoms include disturbing memories or dreams relate to the traumatic events, anxiety, mental or physical distress, alterations in the ways of thinking. Chinese citizens caught aiding defectors face fines and imprisonment. Jake Kim, North Korean defector. South Korean officials say the new rules are intended to prevent ethnic Koreans living in China from entering the South, as well as stop North Koreans with criminal records from gaining entry.  TNKR was founded in 2013 by Casey Lartigue Jr. and Eunkoo Lee, who currently co-direct the organization. According to Yoon, collective effort of the defectors themselves, the government, NGOs, and humanitarian and religious organizations can help make the adjustment process smoother and less painful. The case of the 24 detainees, who have been held since early February, garnered international attention due to the North's reported harsh punishment of those who attempted to defect. , Some studies have found the direct connection between physical illness and PTSD.  Once resettled, many experience acculturation stress that includes homesickness, cultural shock, alienation, perceived discrimination, and feelings of marginalization. The Korean peninsula is divided between North and South Korea, which are separate countries.  As of 2010, there are 4,846 North Koreans in the Philippines. The category was determined by the defector's political and intelligence value. Exact numbers are unknown; however, in 2013, the Korea Times reported the number of double defectors to be increasing. , A much shorter route than the standard China-Laos-Thailand route is straight to Mongolia, whose government tries to maintain good relations with both North and South Korea but is sympathetic to North Korean refugees.  1,418 were registered as arriving in South Korea in 2016. , According to a recent survey, about 56% of the North Korean defectors are influenced by one or more types of psychological disorders. Jang Jin-sung, a famous North Korean defector and author, was accused of rape by a female defector. In recent years, the Chinese government has tightened the security and increased the number of police outside the consulate. PTSD often prevents defectors from adequately assimilating into a new culture as well as from being able to hold jobs and accumulate material resources. , Results of a survey conducted by the North Korean Refugees Foundation show that approximately 71% of North Koreans to have defected to South Korea since about 1998 are female. China, being the most influential of few economic partners of North Korea while the country has been under U.N. sanctions for decades, is also the largest and continuous aid source of the country. But how much of it is true?Â. In 2002, they comprised 56% of defections to South Korea (1,138 people), and by 2011, the number had grown to 71% (2,706 people).  A number of North Koreans have entered illegally, estimated at about 200, and generally settle in the ethnic Korean community in Los Angeles. The Ministry of Unification is thus the main organization that manages North Korean defectors in South Korean territory by establishing admission processes and resettlement policies. For a period of time after their arrival defectors were also provided with personal bodyguards. Six North Korean soldiers in the past three years have run for a new life to South Korea by crossing the demilitarized zone, aka DMZ. The pain of losing her babies is still evident in the eyes of Kim Jeong Ah, a North Korean defector and mother. Chung, S., & Park, J. , In some cases, defectors voluntarily return to North Korea. , Before 2009, over 70% of female North Korean defectors were victims of human trafficking. Fewer North Korean defectors as COVID helps regime tighten grip. Kim Geum-Hyuk, who now lives in Seoul, South Korea, spoke with the YouTube channel DIMPLE about his recent expedition to the U.S. and how the North Korean government portrays Americans to the public. Hours later, South Korean soldiers fired warning shots at North Korean guards who appeared to be searching for the defector as they approached the border.  China does not grant asylum or refugee status to North Koreans and, with few exceptions, considers them illegal immigrants and deports them to back to North Korea. , South Korea's Ministry of Unification is a government organization that is in charge of preparing for a future reunification between North and South Korea. 15 North Korean Defector Stories That Will Give You Chills. , On 25 June 2012, a South Korean activist surnamed Yoo was arrested for helping the North Korean defectors to escape. 2. North Korean 'defector' triggers border security concerns in South Korea North Korean ‘defector’ triggers border security concerns in South Korea South Korean troops patrolling the heavily militarized border have failed to immediately apprehend the intruder, and critics point out that this is just the latest in a series of similar security breaches. Some main reasons for the falling number of defectors especially since 2000 are strict border patrols and inspections, forced deportations, and rising cost for defection.  Both South Korean diplomatic missions and local ethnic Koreans are reluctant to provide them with any assistance; it is believed that North Korea ordered the assassination of South Korean consul Choi Duk-gun in 1996 as well as two private citizens in 1995, in response to their contact with the refugees. , Although Laos was once seen as a safe haven for North Korean defectors, in 2013 nine defectors were arrested and sent back to North Korea causing international outrage partially because one of the defectors is the son of a Japanese abductee.  In November 2016, North Korean website Uriminzokkiri aired an interview with three double defectors who complained that they had been treated as second-class citizens. , The non-profit NGO Teach North Korean Refugees (TNKR), has received positive recognition for aiding refugees' adjustment to life outside of North Korea. Relationship between psychoso- cial characteristics and recognition about governmental support and life satisfaction among old North Korean defectors. When these North Korean defector and captivity stories started coming out, the world began to get a glimpse of life in the DPRK. They were found in good health. In January 1987, a stolen boat carrying 13 North Koreans washed ashore in Fukui Port in Fukui Prefecture and then continued to South Korea via Taiwan. A North Korean man who defected and surrendered to South Korean authorities in an eastern area of Gangwon Province is a former athlete, according to a South Korean … The group, which arrived from an unnamed Southeast Asian nation, included four women who said that they had been the victims of forced marriage. On 20 December 2017 a defector (name unknown) walked across the DMZ. The rapid increase in asylum applications to Canada is due to the limited options, especially when receiving asylum is becoming more difficult. At 17 years old, Sookyung Kang took the 3,000 mile journey from North Korea to freedom because she wanted to worship God. Men, in contrast, had a higher tendency to leave the country due to political, ideological or surveillance pressure.  In July 2004, 468 North Korean refugees were airlifted to South Korea in the single largest mass defection; Vietnam initially tried to keep their role in the airlift secret, and in advance of the deal, even anonymous sources in the South Korean government would only tell reporters that the defectors came from "an unidentified Asian country". According to research conducted by The Korean Nutrition Society, North Koreans used to consuming only small portions of food in North Korea daily, continue to exercise the same type of habits even when given an abundance of food and provision. Kim Geum-Hyuk … The two major issues were their inability to afford medical care and poor working conditions. TNKR also hosts bi-annual English public speaking contests for North Korean refugees and holds public forums that offer first-hand accounts of life in, escape from, and adjustment outside of North Korea.  Recently, survey results conducted in 2013 by Johns Hopkins and the Korea Institute for National Unification (also known as KINU) showed that there were about 8,708 North Korean defectors and 15,675 North Korean children in China's same three Northeastern Provinces which are Jilin, Liaoning and Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture. Latest North Korean defector reported to be a gymnast who jumped border fence.  This is due to the prevalence of women in service sector jobs whereas men are employed in the military—33% of defectors cited economic reasons as most important. North Korean refugees who resettle in South Korea have been exposed to various forms of traumatic experiences in their home countries before migration. , On 5 May 2006, unnamed North Koreans were granted refugee status by the United States, the first time the U.S. accepted refugees from there since President George W. Bush signed the North Korean Human Rights Act in October 2004. Human-rights organizations have compiled a list of hundreds of North Korean defectors repatriated by China.  However, using this route requires navigating the unforgiving terrain of the Gobi Desert. Prior to 1997 the payments had been fixed in gold bullion, not in South Korean won—in attempts to counter ingrained distrust about the reliability of paper money.  However, the actual number may be larger considering that many female defectors tend to deny their experience of prostitution. Neither public nor private providers have been convinced to support due to identity politics. North Korean defector numbers plunge amid pandemic. The size of this allowance depended on the category to which the particular defector belonged (there were three such categories). , As of February 2014, age demographic of North Korean defectors show that 4% were ages 0–9, 12% were ages 10–19, 58% were ages 20–39, 21% were ages 40–59, and 4% were over 60. North Korean refugees who are caught in Mongolia are sent to South Korea, effectively granting them a free air ticket. AFP. According to the law, every defector was eligible for an aid package. 3 North Korean defectors talk about what it was like crossing the demilitarized zone All three men were former soldiers who guarded the North Korean border. One is to follow the route to the Mongolian border; another is the route to southeast Asian countries such as Thailand, who welcome the North Korean defectors. International Journal of Korean Unification Studies, 18 (2), 215–248. 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